Об использованных мною книгах
В своей книге я использовал ссылки на более чем 400 книг, статей и монографий. Это всего лишь вершина айсберга от тех более чем 2500 документов с которыми я ознакомился в процессе написания, когда пытался понять мысли, дела и биографии людей, которые дали нам всеобщее обязательное образование, а также те идеи, на базе которых оно развилось.
Вряд ли без всей этой библиографии я смог бы увидеть школьное образование таким, каким я вижу его сейчас, но приходится отметить, что все мои заключения сделаны не на основе той или иной научной работы, а на основе своего собственного 30-летнего опыта работы школьным учителем, моего собственного опыта в качестве ученика и десятилетия обдумывания.
Я бы хотел обьяснить мозаичную структуру своей книги (книга состоит из вполне самодостаточных ессе – О.П.). Вначале, мне хотелось обьединить всё моё знание в один законченный текст, но однажды я понял, что это, на самом деле, введёт читателя в заблуждение. Потому что современная школа – это гигантский цирковой шатёр, под куполом которого одновременно происходит множество разрозненных действий, прекрасный пример социальной инженерии, где ни одна из существующих частей, и ни один из авторов уже не играют никакой роли.
В начале ХХ века становление школьной системы подчинилось интересам индустриальной экономики и развивалось в основном согласно логике поощрений и наказаний: те, кто помогал установить такую систему, получили своё вознаграждение, те кто противился – были наказаны. Когда система окрепла, стало уже не важно, кто ей руководит, человеческие маски - не имеющие влияния, взаимозаменяемые, расходный материал, - прикрывают сложный социальный механизм, вышедший из-под контроля после Второй мировой войны.
Этот механизм запрограммирован на то, что людям нельзя доверять, и что, за небольшим исключением, люди опасны (и опасно тупы). Школа – это больница для молодых людей, чтобы приготовить их к жизни, в которой их будут все учить.
Каждая из следующих 12 книг – труд гения. Я специально рекомендую короткий список, чтобы Вы не испугались прочитать их все. Каждая, за исключением работы Хоффера, имеет обширную библиографию, которая, неизбежно бы пересекалась с моей, если бы я такую составил. Прочитайте их, и Ваш взгляд на существующее положение вещей в школе сильно изменится.
1. Charles Glenn - The Myth of the Common School (Чарльз Гленн «Миф школы для всех»)
review - http://www.thefreemanonline.org/columns/a-reviewers-notebook-the-myth-of-the-common-school/
«Superb historical study relying on primary sources in English, Dutch, and French, including the official records of the state of Massachusetts, to which Glenn had access as a Massachusetts state education official. The Myth of the Common School combines an unparalled sensitivity to the role of government schooling in a democracy with an unmatched familiarity with the historical literature and current events. The Myth of the Common School is as fine a book on educational history as one can find in the English language.»
«Public schools are such a fixture in American life that few parents think -- and even fewer politicians dare -- to question whether the State should be sponsoring education in the first place. Perhaps more of them would, if they understood just when, where and why the whole idea of government-sponsored education came about. In The Myth of the Common School, Boston University professor Charles L. Glenn traces the history of the idea that the State should sponsor popular education in order to mold common loyalties and values among its citizens -- and shows how this idea has led inevitably to conflict with parents and groups who do not accept the values and beliefs inculcated by the State and its educators. Some highlights:
How, before the French Revolution, private church- connected schools were the norm in the Western world
The origins of the idea that children belonged to the State in the work of Enlightenment philosopher Jean- Jacques Rousseau, who inspired the French Revolution
From Revolutionary ideal to reality: how Francois Guizot, in the 1830s, brought the State school into being in France
How American educator Horace Mann made it a personal crusade to establish State schools as the American norm
Mann's ideal of public schools as a nationalist bastion, with the students carrying a common image of their country in their minds
How Mann, in his day, drew upon a broad public consensus about the religious and moral content of education that no longer exists -- and how that has led to the bitterest conflicts surrounding public schools today
2. Raymond Callahan - Education and the Cult of Efficiency (Рэймонд Каллахан «Образование и культ эффективности»)
«In 1962, historian Raymond E. Callahan argued that American educators had allowed themselves to become overly enchanted by Taylorite notions of scientific management and had adopted the techniques of the business-industrial world, to the detriment of the nation's students. Callahan's Education and the Cult of Efficiency not only offered a new and bold interpretation of the history of education in the twentieth century, but it also coined a phrase that continues to represent the constant struggle faced by educators as they seek to balance high-quality instructional practices with external calls for accountability that often come from corporate and public leaders.»
« An image that recurs and that Callahan sees as embodying the movement in education is of the school as a factory, taking unformed children in at one end and spitting out efficient workers and business people at the other. It is not difficult to see such a system as one that would tend to stamp out a good deal of individuality and even creativity in service of a uniformity of product. For such a factory, a new kind of administrator came into being, men who "represented a new type of school administrator," men who were "able, energetic, and practical, an to an amazing degree they represented in their interests and actions the dominant tendencies in American life in the first decades of the twentieth century," namely by showing "a great interest in and admiration for businessmen and industrialists" while also resembling such men in their own actions."
3. Daniel Kevles - In the Name of Eugenics (Дэниэл Кевлс «Именем евгеники»)
по-русски о евгенике с упоминанием Кевлса - http://warrax.net/Satan/Others/evgen.html
4. David J. Rothman - The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic (Дэвид Ротман «Открытие асилума: социальный порядок и беспорядок в новой республике»)
“In the early Nineteenth century, Jacksonian Americans believed they could cure, or at least contain, crime, mental illness and even poverty. The means was the asylum, an institution developed by the state that would separate criminals, the poor, the mentally ill, juvenile delinquents and orphans from the larger society. At its best, the asylum would mold these unfortunates into productive citizens through work, routine and isolation. At its worst, it would become a convenient but often cruel place to get rid of unwanted members of society.
The pro-asylum movement, described in wonderful detail in David J. Rothman’s revised edition of the classic The Discovery of the Asylum, may seem to have less resonance now in an age of prison exposés, closing of state mental hospitals and shifting of children from orphanages to foster families. Yet Rothman’s work is a fascinating glimpse into the origins of these institutions. It reveals why American society turned to incarceration as a solution to its social problems.
As Rothman notes in the 1990 introduction to his work, much of the early research on the history of the asylum had assumed that the Jacksonian reforms were based on philanthropy. Public torture and executions that had been traditional for hundreds of years began to look like cruelty and bloodthirstiness; the English Bedlams that chained the mentally ill to stakes and beat them like animals were no longer acceptable; and local jails that contained debtors, prostitutes, the violent mentally ill as well as criminals were full of “debauchery and disease.” The spacious, comparatively clean and well-regulated asylums built in the early to mid-Nineteenth century did, on the surface, look like an improvement on the normal physical conditions of deviant and dependant members of society.
Yet later theories on the invention of the asylum proposed that fear had as much an influence on reformers as philanthropy. Many citizens of the young United States feared a moral disintegration in society. The family declined, the church lost power and importance, and community ties loosened as the country expanded. The perceived rise in criminality, poverty and mental illness, Jacksonians thought, was proof of this social crisis.
This fear is a clue as to why incarceration, instead of other possible solutions to these social problems, found such widespread support. The asylum supplied something of a societal double-whammy: it would improve the conditions of the dependant and deviant, and it would separate them from a society that needed to be shielded from moral collapse.
Rothman maintains that the motives for inventing the asylum were diverse, ranging from humanitarianism to the desire to inspire fear in criminals. To get at the heart of these motives, Rothman first looks back at Colonial America and the ways it coped with its less fortunate members. This historical context helps reveal the revolutionary change in social attitudes that arose in the early Republic.”
5. John Harrison – Quest for a New Moral World: Robert Owen and the Owenites in Britain and America (Джон Харрисон «Поиск нового морального мира: Роберт Оуэн и оуэниты в Британии и Америке»)
«Robert Owen and the Owenites were associated with the rise of an early industrial society in Britain and with the development of an agricultural, frontier society in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century. This book, originally published in 1969, was the first to use both British and American source material, and tells the story of Robert Owen and the movement associated with his name, from the standpoint of comparative social and intellectual history. The book directs new light on Owenism, and at the same time illuminates general problems of the history of social movements and social change in modern societies.»
6. Christopher Lasch – The True and Only Heaven: Progress and its Critics (Кристофер Лаш «Истинный и единственный рай: прогресс и его критики»)
review - http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/the-true-and-only-heaven--by-christopher-lasch-7860
7. John Higham – Strangers in the Land:Patterns of American Nativism (1860-1925) (Джон Хайхем «Незнакомцы в Земле: образцы американского найтивизма (1860-1925)»)
«John Higham’s book deals with the background of one of the most important decisions in American history—the decision, made thirty-five years ago, to limit immigrants to this country to a relatively small and carefully selected number. Mr. Higham has done an impressive job. He has studied an enormous volume of letters, newspapers, organizational records, monographs, and has extracted from them a clear and convincing account of the major shifts in public opinion which made possible the reversal of an immigration policy that had been in effect for a hundred years. His book is to my mind a major contribution to American history. The story Mr. Higham relates was not, I think, generally known even to historians before he undertook to tell it. Strangers in the Land opens in the 1860’s, on an America which has been absorbing great numbers of immigrants for decades, and in which the dominant social and economic, as well as intellectual elements take it for granted that this is the natural and proper course for the country. It is a period when economic self-interest and democratic ideology combine to support the historic policy of the open gate. There had been, in the 1850’s, an outbreak of “nativism,” generally based on Protestant resentment of heavy Irish Catholic immigration, but it had never become more than sporadic and local, and left no mark on legislation. In the country as a whole, during the 1870’s and 1880’s, there was hardly any feeling that immigration posed a problem for the nation.»
In Memoriam: John Higham http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2003/0310/0310mem2.cfm
Вся книга(?): http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54396522
8. David Hackett Fiсsher – Albion's Seed. Four British Folkways in America (Дэвид Хакет Фишер «Семя Альбиона. Четверо британцев в Америке»)
review - http://www.powells.com/biblio/1-9780195069051-0
9. James H.Billington – Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith (Джеймс Хедли Биллингтон «Пожар в умах человеческих: происхождение революционной веры»)
«Если вы можете прочитать только одну книгу по теории революции, то это должна быть эта книга.»
«This book traces the origins of a faith-perhaps the faith of the century. Modern revolutionaries are believers, no less committed and intense than were Christians or Muslims of an earlier era. What is new is the belief that a perfect secular order will emerge from forcible overthrow of traditional authority. This inherently implausible idea energized Europe in the nineteenth century, and became the most pronounced ideological export of the West to the rest of the world in the twentieth century.
Billington is interested in revolutionaries-the innovative creators of a new tradition. His historical frame extends from the waning of the French Revolution in the late eighteenth century to the beginnings of the Russian Revolution in the early twentieth century. The theater was Europe of the industrial era; the main stage was the journalistic offices within great cities such as Paris, Berlin, London, and St. Petersburg. Billington claims with considerable evidence that revolutionary ideologies were shaped as much by the occultism and proto-romanticism of Germany as the critical rationalism of the French Enlightenment. The conversion of social theory to political practice was essentially the work of three Russian revolutions: in 1905, March 1917, and November 1917. Events in the outer rim of the European world brought discussions about revolution out of the school rooms and press rooms of Paris and Berlin into the halls of power.
Despite his hard realism about the adverse practical consequences of revolutionary dogma, Billington appreciates the identity of its best sponsors, people who preached social justice transcending traditional national, ethnic, and gender boundaries. Whenthis book originally appeared The New Republic hailed it as "remarkable, learned and lively," while The New Yorker noted that Billington "pays great attention to the lives and emotions of individuals and this makes his book absorbing." It is an invaluable work of history and contribution to our understanding of political life.»
10. Eric Hoffer – The True Believer (Эрик Хоффер «Истинноверующий»)
почитать - http://krotov.info/libr_min/h/hoffer.html
неплохая рецензия - http://www.elitarium.ru/2004/07/15/jerik_khoffer__istinnoverujushhijj_1951.html
11. Carroll Quigley – Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time (Кэррол Куигли «Трагедия и надежда: история мира в наше время»)
review - http://www.alpheus.org/html/reviews/parapolitics/rev_tragedy_hope.html
ссылка по-английски (вся книга?) - http://sandiego.indymedia.org/media/2006/10/119975.pdf
review на книгу Биллингтона и две книги Кэррола Куигли: http://www.kingsbenchletter.com/donbell/db29_20.html
12. Langdon Winner – Autonomous Technology (Лэнгдон Виннер\Уиннер «Автономная технология»)
«Лэнгдон Уиннер — американский политолог, один из самых проницательных критиков технологии.»
review - http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1510/is_n73/ai_11725895/